Schlegel TT, Starc V, Pahlm O, et al.  Accuracy of advanced versus strictly conventional 12-lead ECG for detection and screening of coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. 2010;10:28. PubMed (with link to Full Text): ; MEDSCAPE:

Ball RL, Feiveson AH, Schlegel TT, Starc V and Dabney AR.  Predicting “Heart Age” using Electrocardiography. Journal of Personalized Medicine 2014, 4(1), 65-78.  Link to full text: 

Gladding PA,  Cave A,  Zareian M,  Smith K,  Hussan J, Hunter P, Erogbogbo F, Aguilar Z, Martin DS, Chan E,  Homer ML,  Shevade AV,  Kassemi M,  Thomas JD, Schlegel TT. Open Access Integrated Therapeutic and Diagnostic Platforms for Personalized Cardiovascular Medicine. Journal of Personalized Medicine 2013; 3:203-237. Link to full text:  (sections on A-ECG are on pages 209-212, with Figure 4, and on pages 223-226, with Figures 10-11).  

Gleeson S, Liao Y-W,  Dugo C, Cave, A, Zhou L,  Ayar Z,  Christiansen J, Scott T, Dawson L, Gavin A, Schlegel TT and Gladding PA. ECG-derived spatial QRS-T angle is associated with ICD implantation, mortality and heart failure admissions in patients with LV systolic dysfunction.  PLoS ONE 2017; 12(3): e0171069  Link to full text: 

Bacharova L, Estes HE, Schocken DD, Ugander M, Soliman EZ, Hill JA, Bang LE, Schlegel TT.  The 4th Report of the Working Group on ECG Diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. J Electrocardiol. 2017 Jan - Feb;50(1):11-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2016.11.003.  

Gladding, PA, Patrick, A, Manley, P., Mash, L, Shepherd P, Murphey, R, Vilas-Boas, S, and Schlegel, TT.  Personalized Hypertension Management in Practice.  Future Medicine:  Personalized Medicine 12(3): 297-311. June 2015.

Maanja M, Wieslander B, Schlegel TT, Bacharova L, Abu Daya H, Fridman Y, Wong TC, Schelbert EB, Ugander M. Diffuse myocardial fibrosis reduces electrocardiographic voltage measures of left ventricular hypertrophy independent of left ventricular mass.  J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Jan 22;6(1).  Link to full text: 

Jaroszyński A, Jaroszyńska A, Siebert J, Dąbrowski W, Niedziałek J, Bednarek-Skublewska A, Zapolski T, Wysokiński A, Załuska W, Książek A, Schlegel TT.  The prognostic value of positive T wave in lead aVR in hemodialysis patients. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2015 Dec; 19(6):1157-64. Link to full text:

Cortez D, Sharma N, Cavanaugh J, Tuozo F, Derk G, Lundberg E, Schlegel TT, Weiner K, Kiciman N, Alejos J, Landeck B, Aboulhosn J, Miyamoto S, Batra A, McCanta AC. The spatial QRS-T angle outperforms the Italian and Seattle ECG-based criteria for detection of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.   J Electrocardiol. 2015 Sep-Oct;48(5):826-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2015.07.016 

Cortez, D, Schlegel, TT, Ackerman, MJ, Bos, JM. ECG-derived spatial QRS-T angle is strongly associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Electrocardiol. 2016 Oct 14. pii: S0022-0736(16)30271-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2016.10.001.

Dabrowski W, Jaroszynski A, Jaroszynska A, Rzecki Z, Schlegel TT, Malbrain ML.  Intra-abdominal hypertension increases spatial QRS-T angle and elevates ST segment J point in healthy women undergoing laparoscopic surgery.  J Electrocardiol. 2016 Oct 13. pii: S0022-0736(16)30272-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2016.10.002. [Epub ahead of print]

Kothadia R, Kulecz W, Kofman IS, Black AJ, Grier JW, Schlegel TT. New System for Digital to Analog Transformation and Reconstruction of 12-Lead ECGs. PLoS ONE 2013; 8(4): e61076. Full Text:;jsessionid=872AD71E692FCB83ACFB3FDE3EE2E8B7

Starc V, Schlegel TT et al.  Can functional cardiac age be predicted from the ECG in a normal healthy population? Computing in Cardiology; 2012; 39:101-104. Full text:

Rauber M, Stajer D, Noc M, Schlegel TT, Starc V.  High resolution ECG differences between hospital survivors and non-survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during mild therapeutic hypothermia. Computing in Cardiology; 2014:  Full text:

Brown RA, Schlegel TT.  Diagnostic utility of the spatial versus individual planar QRS-T angles in cardiac disease detection. J Electrocardiol. 2011; Jul-Aug;44(4):404-9. Link:

Sakowski C, Starc V, Schlegel TT, et al.  Sedentary long-duration head-down bed rest and ECG repolarization heterogeneity.  Aviat Space Environ Med.  2011; 82:416-423. PubMed:

Poplack Potter SL, Holmqvist F, Platonov, et al.  Detection of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is improved when using advanced rather than strictly conventional 12-lead electrocardiogram.  J Electrocardiol. 2010;43:713-718. PubMed:

Cortez DL,  Schlegel TT.  When deriving the spatial QRS-T angle from the 12-lead electrocardiogram, which transform is more Frank: regression or inverse dower? J Electrocardiol. 2010; 43(4):203-209. Pubmed:

Cortez D, Sharma N, Devers C, Devers E, Schlegel TT. Visual transform applications for estimating the spatial QRS–T angle from the conventional 12-lead ECG: Kors is still most Frank. J Electrocardiol. 2014 Jan-Feb;47(1):12-19. Link:

Spiljak Pakkanen M, Domanjko Petric A, Olsen LH, Stepancic A, Schlegel TT, Falk T, Rasmussen CE, Starc V. Advanced electrocardiographic parameters change with severity of mitral regurgitation in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels in sinus rhythm. J Vet Intern Med. 2012; Jan-Feb;26(1):93-100. Pubmed:

Starc V, Schlegel TT.  The effect of aging and cardiac disease in that portion of QT interval variability that is independent of heart rate variability. Computers in Cardiology, 2008 Link:

Solaimanzadeh I, Schlegel TT, Hilz MJ, et al.  Advanced electrocardiographic predictors of mortality in familial dysautonomia.  Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical. 2008;144:76-82. PubMed:

Vrtovec B, Okrajesk R, Radovancevic B, et al.  Atorvastin therapy may reduce the incidence of sudden cardiac death in patients with advanced chronic heart failure.  J Cardiac Failure.  2008;14:140-144. PubMed:

Trägårrdh E, Schlegel TT.  High-frequency QRS electrocardiogram.  Clin Physiol Funct Imaging.  2007;27(4):197-204 PubMed:

Trägårrdh E, Schlegel TT, Pahlm O.  High-frequency electrocardiogram analysis in the ability to predict reversible perfusion defects during adenosine myocardial perfusion imaging.  J Electrocardiol.  2007;40:510-514 PubMed:

Starc V, Schlegel TT. Real-time multichannel system for beat-to-beat QT interval variability. J Electrocardiol. 2006;39:358-367. PubMed:

Douglas PK, Batdorf NJ, Schlegel TT, et al.  Temporal and postural variation of 12-lead high-frequency QRS electrocardiographic signals in asymptomatic individuals. J Electrocardiol. 2006;39:259-265. PubMed:

Rahman MA, Gedevanishvili A, Schlegel TT, et al.  High-frequency QRS electrocardiogram predicts perfusion defects during myocardial perfusion imaging.  J Electrocardiol. 2006;39:73-81. PubMed:

Starc, V., Schlegel TT, Arenare B, et al.  The best identifiers of cardiomyopathy in short duration ECG recordings: High frequency QRS reduced amplitude zone score, QT interval variability, low frequency RR interval power and heart rate turbulence slope. 2006 (in  Slovenian). Link:

Rahman MA, Gedevanishvili A, Schlegel TT, et al.  Non-invasive detection of coronary artery disease by a newly developed high-frequency QRS electrocardiogram. Physiological Measurement. 2004;25:957-965.PubMed:

Spackman TN, Abel MD, Schlegel TT.  Twelve-lead high frequency QRS electrocardiography during anesthesia in healthy subjects.  Anesthesia and Analgesia 2005; 100:1043-7 PubMed:

Jugo, DJ, Schlegel TT, et al.  Parámetros que mejor identifican la presencia de la miocardiopatía chagásica a partir del electrocardiograma superficial. IFMBE Proceedings.  2007: 1163-67. Link to original article (in Spanish with English abstract):

Batfdorf NJ, Feiveson AH, Schlegel TT.  Month-to-month and year-to-year reproducibility of high frequency QRS ECG signals. J of Electrocardiol. 2004;37:289-29. PubMed:

Schlegel TT, Kulecz WB, DePalma JL, et al. Real-time 12-lead high frequency QRS electrocardiography for enhanced detection of myocardial ischemia and coronary artery disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004;79:339-350. Full text: