Detailed A-ECG Reports for Individual Patients:

Linked below are example A-ECG Reports for different individual patients. These are all real patients and reports, although the patients' names and other personal information have been changed to protect their identities. An important point is that all of these patients had normal or clinically unremarkable conventional 12-lead ECGs (also linked below, next to the given patient's A-ECG Report). However, they all had very different A-ECG results, as can be seen from their A-ECG Reports, which were in turn more commensurate with their actual clinical stories, noted respectively further below. 

Ima Starr (A-ECG Report from full-disclosure 12-lead ECG)  (Accompanying conventional 12-lead ECG and derived VCG)  

Will B. Young  (A-ECG Report from full-disclosure 12-lead ECG)  (Accompanying conventional 12-lead ECG and derived VCG

Aida Maines (A-ECG Report from full-disclosure 12-lead ECG)  (Accompanying conventional 12-lead ECG and derived VCG

Kent C. Long (A-ECG Report from 10-sec snapshot 12-lead ECG)  (Accompanying conventional 12-lead ECG)  

M.T. Chambers (A-ECG Report from 10-sec snapshot 12-lead ECG)  (Accompanying conventional 12-lead ECG)  

Tavis Reddy (A-ECG Report from 10-sec snapshot 12-lead ECG)  (Accompanying conventional 12-lead ECG)  

A-ECG Group Report:

Linked below is an example A-ECG Group Report, wherein A-ECG results for more than one person are included within a single, simpler, A-ECG Report, but wherein the presented information is slightly less detailed for each individual patient. In this case, the example A-ECG Group Report contains A-ECG results for seven healthy members of a professional athletics team, three of whom had borderline abnormal conventional 12-lead ECGs. Thus whereas the example A-ECG Reports for several of the individual patients above demonstrate A-ECG's relatively increased sensitivity, compared to strictly conventional 12-lead ECG, the A-ECG Group Report for the GlobeRunner athletes below demonstrates A-ECG's relatively increased specificity. 

The GlobeRunners (Professional Athletics Team)  (A-ECG Group Report)  (Accompanying conventional 12-lead ECG and derived VCG for Athlete#1) (Accompanying conventional 12-lead ECG and derived VCG for Athlete #3) (Accompanying conventional 12-lead ECG and derived VCG for Athlete #7)

Clinical stories for the above patients, based on feedback from their supervising clinicians: 

Ima Starr is 61-year old woman who was undergoing a thorough executive health examination that included a normal resting 5-min conventional 12-lead ECG. She is completely asymptomatic and very health conscious. As part of her executive health exam, she ultimately had normal results on several cardiac imaging tests too. Her A-ECG Report, produced from the digitally stored data comprising her 5-min ECG, was also completely normal, consistent with her normal cardiac imaging results. In her case, A-ECG Heart Age Scoring (see page 5 of her A-ECG Report) also suggested that her Heart Age by A-ECG was more than 3 years younger than her true chronological age. Ms. Starr and her clinician were thus very encouraged by this result.

Will B. Young is an asymptomatic 47-year old man with hypertension. He has no known coronary artery disease or other heart disease, and his prior imaging results and recent resting 5-min conventional 12-lead ECG were all considered clinically unremarkable. His A-ECG Report, produced from the digitally stored data comprising his 5-min ECG, was also negative for cardiac diseases, consistent with his imaging results and clinical history. However, results from A-ECG Heart Age Scoring (see page 5 of his A-ECG Report) suggested that his Heart Age by A-ECG was higher than his true chronological age, probably due at least in part to his underlying hypertension. Thus Will would likely benefit from improvements to his lifestyle and/or from other measures suggested by his clinician to help him better control his high blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. If Will is successful in implementing lifestyle and other improvements, it's quite possible that his A-ECG Age Score will improve on follow-up 5-min ECGs.  

Aida Maines is a 69-year old woman who complained of vague chest discomfort, especially with exertion. Nonetheless she recently had a normal resting 5-min conventional 12-lead ECG. However, her A-ECG Report, produced from the digitally stored data comprising her 5-min ECG, was clearly abnormal (positive for "Disease", per the report's page 3). Moreover the discriminant analysis (or "SpaceEKG") component of her A-ECG Report (see its page 4) suggested that her specific type of underlying heart disease was most likely coronary artery disease.  Her derived vectorcardiogram (VCG, see the last page of her A-ECG and conventional ECG reports) also suggested that she might have already had a small heart attack in the past, in spite of her normal conventional 12-lead ECG. In her case, because her main A-ECG scores were positive for "Disease"A-ECG Heart Age Scoring was not performed, because such scoring is only relevant to those individuals whose main A-ECG scores are "negative" for Disease (i.e., whose results most resemble those of known "Healthy" patients in the underlying A-ECG database). Aida Maines also had an exercise stress test, which showed notable ST segment depression before peak exertion. As a result, she went on to have a coronary angiogram, which revealed severe left main coronary artery disease and also an ostial lesion of the left circumflex coronary artery -- i.e., so-called "critical anatomy". She was treated appropriately for her severe coronary artery disease. Her left ventricular ejection fraction was normal, a finding consistent with her negative A-ECG score for left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD), which is one of the additional sub-scores shown on page 3 of her A-ECG Report

Kent C. Long is 14-year old male who had a syncopal episode, prompting a medical workup that included a standard, resting (10-sec) conventional 12-lead ECG. His conventional ECG was read as clinically normal, and Kent was otherwise in good health. However, in spite of his normal conventional ECG and its associated normal QTc (corrected QT) interval, an A-ECG Report produced for Kent from the digitally stored data comprising his "read as normal" conventional 12-lead ECG suggested a high probability of "Disease".  More specifically, the discriminant analysis ("SpaceEKG") component of his A-ECG Report (see its page 4) suggested a high probability of a long QT syndrome (LQTS). An extensive work-up that included genetics testing at a tertiary academic institution revealed that Kent did indeed have a genetic long QT syndrome, the likely reason for his syncope. 

M.T. Chambers is an asymptomatic 39-year old man with "non-specific ST-T wave changes" on his standard, resting (10-sec) conventional 12-lead ECG, a common and often benign clinical finding. Because he had a family history of heart problems, Mr. Chambers went on to have an extensive cardiac workup, including imaging tests and, based on results from those, eventually genetics tests too. An A-ECG Report produced for Mr. Chambers from the digitally stored data comprising his same (i.e., "borderline") 12-lead ECG suggested a high probability for "Disease", and specifically a high probability for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (see the discriminant analysis or "SpaceEKG" component of his A-ECG Report on its page 4). Mr. Chambers' clinical imaging results and blood testing eventually pinpointed the presence of a genetic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. It's nonetheless of note that a specific diagnosis by A-ECG of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in Mr. Chambers' case required nothing more than access to his digitally stored 12-lead ECG data file.

Tavis Reddy is a 74-year old man who underwent evaluation for shortness of breath and a heart murmur. His standard, resting (10-sec) conventional 12-lead ECG was clinically unremarkable. Nonetheless, his A-ECG Report, produced from the digitally stored data comprising his 12-lead ECG, was clearly abnormal (positive for "Disease"), and moreover the discriminant analysis ("SpaceEKG") component of his A-ECG Report (see its page 4) suggested that his specific type of underlying heart disease was most likely left ventricular hypertrophy or enlargement (aka "left ventricular electrical remodeling", when diagnosed by means of ECG or in this case by A-ECG). An echocardiogram revealed severe aortic valvular stenosis and left ventricular hypertrophy, with notably increased left ventricular mass. Mr. Reddy ultimately underwent a Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) procedure to relieve his aortic stenosis and symptoms. His A-ECG score for LSVD was negative (see page 3 of his A-ECG Report), consistent with his normal left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography. There was also no evidence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by either A-ECG or echocardiography. 

The GlobeRunners: All seven members of the GlobeRunners professional athletic team whose A-ECG results are included in the example A-ECG Group Report were asymptomatic, their 12-lead ECGs having been performed for screening and other purposes. Three of the team's endurance-trained athletes had "borderline abnormal" conventional 12-lead ECGs. Specifically, Athlete 1's conventional 12-lead ECG showed a prolonged corrected QT (QTc) interval (=452 ms; "normal" QTc values for adult males being <440 ms) and also a minor intraventricular conduction delay (QRS interval =110 ms). Athlete 3's conventional 12-lead ECG showed very high QRS voltages that met Sokolow-Lyon criteria for the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy, i.e., S wave voltage in lead V1 plus R wave voltage in lead V5 or lead V6 (whichever is greater) >3.5 mV. Finally, Athlete 7's conventional 12-lead ECG showed ST segment elevation in several leads. However, in spite of their "borderline" conventional 12-lead ECGs, all three of these athletes (and also all four of the other athletes who had more "normal" appearing conventional 12-lead ECGs) had completely normal or "Healthy" results by A-ECG, as shown within their A-ECG Group Report. As also shown within their A-ECG Group Reportof the five athletes who had 5-min 12-lead ECGs suitable for A-ECG Heart Age Scoring, one (Athlete 1) had an A-ECG Age Score higher than his true chronological (or "body") age, two had A-ECG Age Scores lower than their true chronological ages, and two had A-ECG Age Scores statistically no different than their true chronological ages. Finally, all seven of these athletes also had normal results by echocardiography and MRI, thus further validating, by cardiac imaging, the main A-ECG results.